know the vines to understand and appreciate the varieties of Tuscan wines
In Tuscany there are many indigenous varieties and as many varieties arrived over the centuries from the ancient trade routes
THE AUTOCHTHONOUS WINES We report a list of the largest autochthonous vines. The most used undoubtedly is Sangiovese. Canaiolo, Colorino, Pugnitello, Foglia Tonda and Vermentino nero are often present in small percentages, rare are the vinifications alone. Trebbiano is often used for Vin Santo, vernaccia is the white of San Gimignano. Malvasia is often vinified in blends with Tuscan Trebbiano, to make dry and sweet white wines.Tuscany and its vines
Black grape variety, is the most common in Tuscany. It blends different wines, including some of the most prestigious: Chianti and Chianti Classico, Brunello di Montalcino, Vino Nobile di Montepulciano, Carmignano, Morellino di Scansano and many other less known but equally valuable. Often to appease its natural “roughness”, Sangiovese is blended with wines produced from other grapes, such as Canaiolo Nero. Sangiovese is a late ripening grape, with an excellent ability to adapt to different types of soils.
black grape variety mainly found in the area of Chianti Classico, Montepulciano, Carmignano, San Gimignano, Lucca, it is difficult to find Canaiolo alone; it gives rise to a wine with a good alcoholic content, full-bodied and soft with aromas of red fruit. Its origin dates back to 1300 with the name of Uva Canjuola. The name seems to derive from the fact that the period of the veraison falls in the period of the heat wave (24 July-24 August), or from the characteristic bitterish scent reminiscent of the dog rose.
black grape variety widespread in almost all of Tuscany, with the exception of Massa Carrara and Livorno. Probably the origin goes back to the domestication of wild vines happened centuries ago; it is a variety almost never produced alone, but utilized as “improving” vine for the color and the sugars.
Black grape, so called for the shape of its cluster that resembles a small fist. Because of the small size of the cluster has a low productivity. The wine has a very intense ruby red color with violet hues. There is no certain information about where it came from, it is believed that it may come from the province of Grosseto. It has some morphological resemblance to Montepulciano.
This white grape variety is widespread in almost all of Tuscany and is used for the preparation of several Vin Santi (Chianti, Chianti Classico, Carmignano, Montepulciano and Elba). The Tuscan Trebbiano is a vine characterized more by productivity than by personality and, also thanks to the strong acidity that gives the wines, it is well suited to drying.
white grape variety produced exclusively in the town of San Gimignano, the first evidence of the variety dates back to 1276. The name may derive from “vernaculus”, that is “everything that comes from a given place”. It produces a white wine suitable for medium ageing.
Le The black berries of Foglia Tonda guarantee phenolic richness and good acidity, which determines an excellent aging potential. The vine had practically disappeared, it was rediscovered in 1964 in the Chianti area. The Di Rovasenda in his “Essay for a universal ampelography” of 1877 places the Round Leaf in the area surrounding the Castle of Brolio. The Round Leaf resists well to downy mildew, botrytis and partly powdery mildew.
According to some scholars it is a mutation of the white Vermentino, also for the similarity of many ampelographic characteristics. It probably originates from the hills of the coastal strip of upper Tuscany (Massa-Carrara and lower Lunigiana), where it is still cultivated. From the vinification of Vermentino Nero grapes is obtained a wine of ruby red color, fragrant and fruity to the nose, with medium-structured palate and discreet persistence.
OTHER GRAPE VARIETIES List of the most important grape varieties from other regions of Italy and other countries, used for many years in Tuscany. Ansonica and Vermentino bianco are mainly found on the islands and on the coast. Ciliegiolo and Viogner are mainly used in Maremma, Alicante and Syrah are widespread throughout Tuscany. Cabernet Souvignon, Merlot and Cabernet Franc are used throughout Tuscany, especially in the area of Bolgheri and Val di Cornia.
A white grape variety found on the islands and on the Tuscan coast of Grosseto, Pisa and Livorno, it is mainly found in Elba and Argentario. The name Ansonica probably derives from the old French, “sorie”, that is “golden color”. Grape variety of Sicilian origins, spread first in Sardinia and then in Tuscany
The Tuscan Vermentino develops mainly along the coast; the wine obtained has light notes of fresh fruit, citrus and white flowers. The origins are discordant. It is thought that he was born in Spain and then from there it spread to various regions of France, and from there to Liguria and Tuscany.
black grape variety present in the province of Lucca, in Chianti and especially in Maremma. It gives rise to a wine of intense color, full-bodied, alcoholic and soft, sometimes lacking in acidity. Its name comes from the characteristic cherry aroma. It could have been imported from Spain, in fact it is also called “Ciliegiolo di Spagna”.
black grape variety present in the Maremma Grossetana. It is considered native and widespread from Spain, the name comes from the homonymous Spanish city of Alicante. Alicante takes different names in the various regions where it is grown, for example in Sardinia becomes Cannonau. Alicante is characterized by its full and soft taste, particularly rich in tannins.
black grape variety among the most popular in the world, particularly suitable for the production of wines of great quality and great longevity, often used in assembly with Cabernet franc and Merlot. It originates in Bordeaux (the region of Bordeaux, in France). This grape is commonly known as “Bordeaux cut”, from the area where it was first introduced. Recent genetic tests confirm that the origin of Cabernet Sauvignon is to be attributed to a incorcio between Cabernet Franc and the white grape variety Sauvignon. Cabernet Sauvignon has the capacity to adapt to the most disparate climatic conditions and vinification techniques.
black grape variety native to Gironde, Bordeaux, France. Merlot is often accompanied by Cabernet Sauvignon, with which it gives life to the assembly known as Taglio Bordolese. The two vines are perfectly integrated: the first one giving the wine its full and ripe fruit, the second, more tannic, a higher aristocratic and longevity. In Italy Merlot reached the end of 1800, in Friuli-Venezia Giulia, and then spread quickly in Veneto and Trentino-Alto Adige. Now widespread in many other regions, including Tuscany where the vine dominates throughout the Tyrrhenian area, especially in the clay soils of the Val di Cornia and Bolgheri, where it participates in the creation of wines known as Supertuscans, also based on the Bordeaux Cut.
black grape variety originating in the area of Gironda (Bordeaux), France. It is often used together with Cabernet-Sauvignon and Merlot to give life to what is called “Taglio Bordolese”. Cabernet Franc is also found throughout North America, Chile and Argentina, South Africa, Australia and New Zealand. Friuli-Venezia Giulia and Tuscany are the Italian regions where the best Cabernet Franc are produced, in particular in the region of Bolgheri where the grape is appreciated for the balance and elegance it brings to wines.Cabernet franc resists pretty well to rigid climates and is earlier than Cabernet sauvignon, compared to which it is less tannic, in fact for this reason it is often used to balance wines.
black grape variety originating in France spread in our country in the mid-800 and has found the territory of choice in many regions especially in central-southern Italy. Originally it seems to come from the city of Schiraz, in Persia, from which it seems to have come to our country in antiquity through the city of Syracuse. In the new world it is best expressed especially in the warmer wine regions, such as Australia, South Africa and California. The best Tuscan Syrah are inspired by the Côte du Rhône, rich in fruity notes of black currant, blackberry and plum, with sometimes smoky tones on a background spiced and measured tannins. Syrah wines on the market are generally of good organoleptic agreeability.
white grape variety originating in the Rhône Valley, France. It was introduced by Emperor Marcus Aurelius Probus, who was originally from Sirmium (Sremska Mitrovica) in Serbia, so it is possible that its origins are Balkan. It is generally blended with other grapes. If vinified alone, it can sometimes express results absolutely worthy of note.